The Raven’s Test, also known as the Raven Progressive Matrices Test, is a widely used tool for measuring analogical reasoning, perception, and abstraction ability.
It consists of 60 multiple-choice questions, whose answers allow us to analyze and evaluate the “g” factor of intelligence proposed by Spearman, referring to general mental and cognitive processes that allow us to give satisfactory answers to daily problems. It is used to measure IQ and can be applied to children and adults.
Application of the Raven test
The test is usually applied in educational centers and, also, in personnel selection tests. More recently, it is usual that it is also part of the psycho-technical tests in the selection processes of different professions. The test considers a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence.
The test consists of 60 multiple choice questions, ranked in order of difficulty. But there are also variations: Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (for children) and Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices (for people with higher intelligence).
Functioning of the test
The psychological evaluation is done through figures presented to the subject to resolve various situations.
It focuses on the creation of reasoning through the analysis of different figures that represent diverse messages. It is important to understand that, in this case, we work with sheets of progressive matrices that represent different types of messages to be deciphered by the subject, and this is where it assesses your IQ level.
Use of the Raven test
These tests were primarily designed for research purposes. Due to their linguistic independence and simplicity of use and interpretation, they quickly found wide practical applications.
Standard Progressive Matrices
The standard progressive is the original form of matrices. It was published in 1938. The test has five sets (from A to E) of 12 items each, with items within a single set becoming increasingly complex and requiring increasing cognitive ability. And require increasing cognitive ability to analyze and solve problems. Items are shown in black ink on a white background.
An example of the use of this test is the fact that 1942s’ applicants to the British armed forces took a twenty-minute version of the standard Raven matrices, and future officers also took a specially adapted version.
Today, psychologists also use the various Raven matrix tests to diagnose learning disabilities or high intellectual potential.
Recent research concludes that people with autism generally score higher on Raven’s Matrix tests than IQ tests like WAIS or WISC.
Characteristics of the Raven test
The Raven test has some key characteristics:
- The test can be applied collectively or individually.
- They are presented in sets of matrix groups of increasing complexity concerning the previous ones.
- Designed and developed to analyze the degree of thought and its capacity.
- Assesses the capacity for abstraction and perception.
- Analyzes actions of the subject on the resolution of everyday problems.
- It is widely used in educational centers and companies in the recruitment processes and personnel selection.
- Its duration is 60 minutes.
The precision of the test is approximately between 0.87 and 0.81, following the Kuder-Richardson formulas and the Terman-Merill criteria.
This test is carried out to determine the degree to which the subject has to immediately solve problems and situations that arise in real life in order to analyze and qualify their rapid response to challenges.
It is important to note that the designer of the test, John Raven, stated that this test should not be used only to measure intelligence. Rather, other sources of information should be considered for the test to have more robust and accurate results.
Among the benefits of the Raven test, we have:
- Applicable to adults and children, people with disabilities, or communication problems.
- It is not expensive.
- It is fun and interesting.
An important quality of the test is how quickly it provides information.
The following considerations allow us to better understand how this test works:
- This is a non-verbal test; it is resolved intellectually without creating an oral analysis.
- The test is a psychological evaluation that uses a set of incomplete and abstract geometric figures for analysis. It causes the subject to create a response based on what is presented to them in order to measure her IQ level.
The Raven test is a widely used and efficient instrument for measuring analogical reasoning, perception, abstraction capacity, and intelligence quotient. Its application is cheap, it can be interesting and fun, and it is apt for people with disabilities and problems to communicate properly.